Accessibility:the degree to which people can
acquire nutritious foods, either through buying them, or by producing or
harvesting the foods themselves.
Availability:the supply of nutritious foods to a
community or region.
Confectioneries:refers to the foods that are
generally recognized as sweet treats. This includes candy (such as
lollipops, candy canes, mints, candy floss, nut brittles, toffee, jellies,
gummies, jujubes, licorice, fudge and caramels); candy bars; chocolate;
chocolate-coated or chocolate-containing treats; chocolate compound
confections; fruit snack products such as fruit leathers and fruit flavoured
pieces; and frozen confections.
Convincing findings:one of the descriptors used
to compare grades of evidence from scientific reports on food and health
that are included in Health Canada’s Evidence Review for Dietary
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan:refers to a low sodium diet that includes foods high in nutrients such as
potassium and calcium that have been shown to help lower blood pressure.1</sup >
It recommends the intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fat-free or
low-fat dairy products, fish, poultry, beans, nuts, and vegetable oils;
limiting foods that are high in saturated fat (such as fatty meats, full-fat
dairy products, and tropical oils), and limiting sugar-sweetened beverages
and sweets.1Dental decay:a disease that can damage
tooth structure. Decay starts by damaging the protective coating, also known
as enamel, causing a hole (cavity) to develop. If the cavity is left
untreated, it can get bigger, cause pain, and lead to the breakage or loss
of a tooth. A cavity is caused when the bacteria living in the plaque react
with sugars from food or drink, resulting in an acid. This acid then attacks
the surface of a tooth.
Determinants of health:the key factors
that influence health, including income and social status; social support
networks; education and literacy; employment and working conditions; the
social and physical environments; personal health practices and coping
skills; healthy child development; biology and genetic endowment; health
services; gender and culture.
Dietary risks:a term used in the Global
Burden of Disease report2 that refers to diets that are low in
fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, fiber, milk, calcium,
seafood omega-3 fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and
diets that are high in sodium, red meat, processed meat, sugar-sweetened
beverages, and trans fatty acids.
Fad diets:diets that are often
commercially driven and promise a quick fix for weight loss or the
management of a chronic disease.
Food additives:substances that are added
to food during manufacturing or processing for the purpose of achieving a
particular technical effect, such as colouring, thickening, prolonging
shelf-life or inhibiting the growth of pathogens. The food additives that
are permitted for use in Canada are identified in the
Lists of Permitted Food Additives</a >.
Food environment:the aspects of the social
and physical environment that affect the types of food available, the
accessibility of food, and the nutrition information that people are exposed
to, including food marketing. All these aspects of the food environment can
influence food choices.
Food skills:the complex, inter-related,
and person-centered set of skills. They are needed to provide and prepare
safe, nutritious, and culturally acceptable meals for all members of a
household.3Free sugars:defined by the World Health
Organization4 as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to
foods and beverages by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and sugars
naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice
concentrates. Free sugars do not include the naturally occurring sources
found in intact fruits and vegetables, and those found in (unsweetened)
Health equity:the absence of unfair and
avoidable differences in health within and between populations. Equity is
not the same as equality. To be treated equally is to be treated the same.
To be treated equitably, the treatment may differ, but the goal is to
achieve outcomes that are more equal.
Highly processed products:a term used in
this report to describe processed or prepared foods and beverages that
contribute to excess sodium, free sugars, or saturated fat.
Indigenous Peoples in Canada:the diverse
populations of Canada—First Nations, Inuit, and Métis—with distinct
languages, cultural practices, histories, spiritual beliefs, and regions.
Important differences are found both within and between First Nations,
Inuit, and Métis.
Mediterranean-style diets:eating patterns
that reflect dietary intakes of people living in Mediterranean countries.
These diets are described in different ways in the literature.5
General features include high intakes of vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts,
seeds, cereals, and olive oil; low to moderate intakes of dairy products,
fish and poultry; low consumption of red and processed meats; and,
sometimes, moderate intake of alcohol.5Pattern of eating:the combination of food
and beverage choices that make up a person’s habitual dietary intake.
Population health approach:an approach
that aims to maintain and improve the health of the entire population and
reduce health inequities among population sub-groups. To do this, the
approach looks at, and acts upon the broad range of factors and conditions
that have a strong influence on health.
Prepared foods and beverages:products
that are prepared by restaurants and other similar establishments, and those
prepared at home. Prepared products can also contain processed ingredients.
Processed foods and beverages:products
that are canned, cooked, frozen, dried or otherwise processed to extend
preservation, food safety, and quality in transportation, distribution and
Processed meat:defined by the World Health
Organization6 as meat that has been transformed through salting,
curing, fermenting, smoking, or other processes to enhance flavour or
Protein foods:include legumes, nuts,
seeds, tofu, fortified soy beverage, fish, shellfish, eggs, poultry, lean
red meat including wild game, lower fat milk, lower fat yogurts, lower fat
kefir, and cheeses lower in fat and sodium.
Social determinants of First Nations health:referred to by the Assembly of First Nations7 as
community readiness; economic development; employment; environmental
stewardship; gender; historical conditions and colonialism; housing; lands
and resources; language, heritage and strong cultural identity; legal and
political equity; lifelong learning; on and off reserve; racism and
discrimination; self-determination and non-dominance; social services and
supports; urban and rural.
Social determinants of Inuit health:referred to by the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami8 as quality of early
childhood development; culture and language; livelihoods; income
distribution; housing; personal safety and security; education; food
security; availability of health services; mental wellness; the environment.
Sugary drinks:refers to beverages that can
contribute to excess free sugars. These include soft drinks, fruit-flavoured
drinks, 100% fruit juice, flavoured waters with added sugars, sport and
energy drinks, and other sweetened hot or cold beverages, such as iced tea,
cold coffee beverages, sweetened milks, and sweetened plant-based beverages.
Traditional food (also known as country food):</summary >foods that are locally available from natural resources that have
cultural significance for Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Traditional food is
the preferred term for First Nations and Métis peoples, and country food is
the preferred term for Inuit. The use of the term “traditional food” in this
report is intended to be inclusive of all Indigenous cultures in Canada.Ultra-processed:a category of foods in the
NOVA food classification system9 that refers to products as
industrial ingredients, obtained from the extraction, refinement, and
transformation of constituents of raw foods, with usually little or no whole
Whole grains:refers to grains that contain
all three parts of the kernel (the bran, the endosperm, and the germ).
Products made with whole grains have the words “whole grain” followed by the
name of the grain as one of the first ingredients. In Canada, 100% whole
wheat flour is not considered a whole grain. This is because much of the
germ is removed when wheat is milled. Though 100% whole wheat foods may not
be considered whole grains, they are nutritious choices that provide dietary