- Health Canada
- Guidance Document
refers to the foods that are generally recognized as sweet treats. This includes candy (such as lollipops, candy canes, mints, candy floss, nut brittles, toffee, jellies, gummies, jujubes, licorice, fudge and caramels); candy bars; chocolate; chocolate-coated or chocolate-containing treats; chocolate compound confections; fruit snack products such as fruit leathers and fruit flavoured pieces; and frozen confections.
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan:
refers to a low sodium diet that includes foods high in nutrients such as potassium and calcium that have been shown to help lower blood pressure. It recommends the intake of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, fish, poultry, beans, nuts, and vegetable oils; limiting foods that are high in saturated fat (such as fatty meats, full-fat dairy products, and tropical oils), and limiting sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets.1
a disease that can damage tooth structure. Decay starts by damaging the protective coating, also known as enamel, causing a hole (cavity) to develop. If the cavity is left untreated, it can get bigger, cause pain, and lead to the breakage or loss of a tooth. A cavity is caused when the bacteria living in the plaque react with sugars from food or drink, resulting in an acid. This acid then attacks the surface of a tooth.
Determinants of health:
the key factors that influence health, including income and social status; social support networks; education and literacy; employment and working conditions; the social and physical environments; personal health practices and coping skills; healthy child development; biology and genetic endowment; health services; gender and culture.
a term used in the Global Burden of Disease report 2 that refers to diets that are low in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds, fiber, milk, calcium, seafood omega-3 fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and diets that are high in sodium, red meat, processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, and trans fatty acids.
substances that are added to food during manufacturing or processing for the purpose of achieving a particular technical effect, such as colouring, thickening, prolonging shelf-life or inhibiting the growth of pathogens. The food additives that are permitted for use in Canada are identified in the Lists of Permitted Food Additives.
the aspects of the social and physical environment that affect the types of food available, the accessibility of food, and the nutrition information that people are exposed to, including food marketing. All these aspects of the food environment can influence food choices.
the complex, inter-related, and person-centered set of skills. They are needed to provide and prepare safe, nutritious, and culturally acceptable meals for all members of a household. 3
defined by the World Health Organization 4 as all monosaccharides and disaccharides added to foods and beverages by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates. Free sugars do not include the naturally occurring sources found in intact fruits and vegetables, and those found in (unsweetened) milk.
the absence of unfair and avoidable differences in health within and between populations. Equity is not the same as equality. To be treated equally is to be treated the same. To be treated equitably, the treatment may differ, but the goal is to achieve outcomes that are more equal.
eating patterns that reflect dietary intakes of people living in Mediterranean countries. These diets are described in different ways in the literature. 5 General features include high intakes of vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds, cereals, and olive oil; low to moderate intakes of dairy products, fish and poultry; low consumption of red and processed meats; and, sometimes, moderate intake of alcohol. 5
Pattern of eating:
Population health approach:
an approach that aims to maintain and improve the health of the entire population and reduce health inequities among population sub-groups. To do this, the approach looks at, and acts upon the broad range of factors and conditions that have a strong influence on health.
Prepared foods and beverages:
Processed foods and beverages:
defined by the World Health Organization 6 as meat that has been transformed through salting, curing, fermenting, smoking, or other processes to enhance flavour or improve preservation.
Social determinants of First Nations health:
referred to by the Assembly of First Nations 7 as community readiness; economic development; employment; environmental stewardship; gender; historical conditions and colonialism; housing; lands and resources; language, heritage and strong cultural identity; legal and political equity; lifelong learning; on and off reserve; racism and discrimination; self-determination and non-dominance; social services and supports; urban and rural.
Social determinants of Inuit health:
referred to by the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 8 as quality of early childhood development; culture and language; livelihoods; income distribution; housing; personal safety and security; education; food security; availability of health services; mental wellness; the environment.
refers to beverages that can contribute to excess free sugars. These include soft drinks, fruit-flavoured drinks, 100% fruit juice, flavoured waters with added sugars, sport and energy drinks, and other sweetened hot or cold beverages, such as iced tea, cold coffee beverages, sweetened milks, and sweetened plant-based beverages.
Traditional food (also known as country food):
foods that are locally available from natural resources that have cultural significance for Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Traditional food is the preferred term for First Nations and Métis peoples, and country food is the preferred term for Inuit. The use of the term “traditional food” in this report is intended to be inclusive of all Indigenous cultures in Canada.
a category of foods in the NOVA food classification system 9 that refers to products as industrial ingredients, obtained from the extraction, refinement, and transformation of constituents of raw foods, with usually little or no whole food.
refers to grains that contain all three parts of the kernel (the bran, the endosperm, and the germ). Products made with whole grains have the words “whole grain” followed by the name of the grain as one of the first ingredients. In Canada, 100% whole wheat flour is not considered a whole grain. This is because much of the germ is removed when wheat is milled. Though 100% whole wheat foods may not be considered whole grains, they are nutritious choices that provide dietary fibre.
- Footnote 1
- National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute [Internet]. Betheseda: National Institute of Health [cited 2018 Sep 14]. Description of the DASH eating plan. 1
- Footnote 2
- Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation [Internet]. Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation [cited 2018 Sep 14]. Diet. 2
- Footnote 3
- Vanderkooy P. Food skills of Waterloo region adults [Fireside Chat web presentation]. Waterloo; 2010. 3
- Footnote 4
- World Health Organization. Guidelines: Sugars intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015. 4
- Footnote 5
- Hernandez-Ruiz A, Garcia-Villanova B, Guerra Hernandez EJ, Amiano P, Azpiri M, Molina-Montes E. Description of indexes based on the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern: A review. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32(5):1872-1884. 5
- Footnote 6
- World Health Organization [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 [cited 2018 Sep 14]. Q&A on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat. 6
- Footnote 7
- Assembly of First Nations. First Nations Wholistic Policy and Planning: A transitional discussion document on the social determinants of health [Internet]. Ottawa: Assembly of First Nations; 2013 [cited 2018 Sep 14]. 7
- Footnote 8
- Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Social determinants of Inuit health in Canada [Internet]. Ottawa: Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami; 2014 [cited 2018 Sep 14]. 8
- Footnote 9
- Moubarac JC, Batal M, Martins AP, Claro R, Levy RB, Cannon G, et al. Processed and ultra-processed food products: Consumption trends in Canada from 1938 to 2011. Can J Diet Pract Res. 2014;75(1):15-21. 9
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